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Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash (P2PKH) is a type of ScriptPubKey which locks bitcoin to the hash of a public key. A P2PKH transaction is one where the inputs were locked using the P2PKH ScriptPubKey. A public key hash is also known as an address, and P2PKH is the most common script type at present. P2PKH is similar to P2PK transactions, except that the bitcoin is locked to the hash of the public key rather than the public key itself.
If Alice wants to send 1 BTC to Bob in a P2PKH transaction, Bob provides Alice with an address from his wallet. Bob’s address is included in the transaction. When Bob tries to spend the bitcoin he received, he must sign the transaction with the private key corresponding to the public key whose hash matches the hash provided in Alice’s transaction.