Pay-to-Public-Key (P2PK) is a type of script which sends bitcoin to a public key. This means that the bitcoin can only be spent by the owner of the private key corresponding to the public key provided.

Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash (P2PKH) is a type of transaction which spends bitcoin to the hash of a public key. A public key hash is also known as an address, and P2PKH is the most common transaction type.

Pay-to-Script-Hash (P2SH) is a type of transaction which allows for the spending of bitcoin based on the satisfaction of any script provided by the sender. P2SH is used for multisig and SegWit transactions.

Pay-to-Witness-Public-Key-Hash (P2WPKH) is a type of ScriptPubKey which is used to lock bitcoin to a SegWit address.

A Pay-to-Witness-Script-Hash (P2WSH) is a type of transaction similar to a P2SH transaction in most ways, except that it uses SegWit.

A peer-to-peer network is one in which members can interact directly with one another without relying on third parties for approval or support.

A penalty transaction allows an one party to a Lightning channel to reclaim funds that were stolen during the dishonest close of a Lightning channel.

A private key is used to send bitcoin which was received by the corresponding public key. While a private key can generate a public key, the reverse is not true.

Bitcoin miners must submit Proof-of-Work in the form of a valid hash in order to have their block be considered valid.

The Bitcoin protocol uses a blockchain based on Proof-of-Work and a token (bitcoin) in order to establish a peer-to-peer monetary network.

Partially Signed Bitcoin Transaction is a bitcoin standard which facilitates the portability of unsigned transactions. This allows multiple parties to easily sign the same transaction.

A pseudonym is a fake name used by individuals to protect their identity. In Bitcoin addresses and public keys serve as pseudonyms on the blockchain.

A public key is used to receive bitcoin. When bitcoin is sent to a public key, only the owner of the corresponding private key will be able to spend it.