Bitcoin is censorship resistant in the sense that no single entity has the ability to reverse a Bitcoin transaction or blacklist a wallet or address.
Chain analysis uses heuristics to analyse the blockchain and trace ownership of bitcoin across transactions. Chain analysis is performed by companies who contract with governments and regulated institutions to provide insight into how individuals send and receive bitcoin.
When bitcoin is sent, a piece of bitcoin is broken up into the amount to be sent to the receiver, and the amount to be returned to the sender, like the change you receive from a store when paying with cash. This change is called a change output, and is identical to other bitcoin you may receive.
A form of transaction which allows the receiver of funds to raise the fee on the transaction in which they are receiving bitcoin. By raising the fee, the receiver speeds up the confirmation of their transaction, thus receiving their payment faster.
Coin selection is the process of choosing a subset of the UTXOs owned by a wallet in order to create and fund a transaction.
The first transaction in each block is the coinbase transaction. This transaction mints new bitcoin and pays it, along with the cumulative transaction fees, to the miner of the block. The coinbase transaction is the only type of transaction which includes no inputs.
CoinJoin transactions provide increased privacy for owners of bitcoin by breaking the heuristics used by chain analysis companies. A CoinJoin transaction combines inputs from several users and returns to each user the exact same amount. However, each output is of the same amount, making it difficult to attribute ownership to each of the identical outputs.
Cold storage describes any method of storing data which does not connect to the internet or any other devices. A Cold wallet is a form of cold storage often used by bitcoiners to protect bitcoin which they do not plan on moving frequently.
A Bitcoin transaction is confirmed when it has been included in a block. Before then, it is simply pending, and exists only in the mempool. After a transaction is added to a block, each subsequent block is an added confirmation for the transaction, indicating a higher level of security.
Consensus is the ideal and the method of coordination between individuals in a decentralized system. Consensus is achieved at the development level with regards to changes to the Bitcoin protocol, and it is also achieved at the blockchain level with regards to agreement on the state of the blockchain.
The study of hashing algorithms, encryption and decryption, and public and private keys all fall in the realm of cryptography. Bitcoin leverages cryptography to achieve many of its central properties.
A custodial wallet or solution is a method of storing Bitcoin keys through a third party. Instead of controlling one's own keys, a user allows a custodian to hold the keys, trusting that they will allow the user access to their funds in the future.
Cypherpunks are an unofficial and loosely connected group of individuals focused on building hardware and software to protect privacy and individual sovereignty. Cypherpunks are concerned with governments’ race towards a surveillance state as well as corporate domination of technology and intellectual property.