An address is used to receive bitcoin and is represented as a string of letters and numbers. When you send bitcoin to an address, only the owner of the private key(s) corresponding with the address can spend that bitcoin.
Anonymity is the quality of a person whose identity is unknown. An anonymous person uses a pseudonym to operate in public while keeping their identity concealed.
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is a special electronic chip built for exactly one purpose. Bitcoin ASIC miners, the hardware devices that contain these chips, are designed solely to hash blocks in order to find a valid Proof-of-Work.